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Saturday, January 22, 2011

My 1st Poster!




This is my first poster that I done with my friends in meteorology subject.
We won the 5rd place for this poster. The easier way of making poster is Microsoft PowerPoint. You can easily decide the size of the poster and edit the picture at the same time, making your work easier. Very useful indeed!



This is our first draft of poster. As you can see, this poster size is smaller. This is because when we used Paint.Net for this poster.

Latest Article About Carbon Sequestration!


CO2 Ocean Sequestration

When we were child, we were touch about global warming at school, even some of us were not concentrated on the lesson but I’m pretty sure that everyone knows that how human activities (anthropogenic) cause the world warming. You can refer into my earlier post about global warming for better understanding. But have you ever heard about carbon sequestration? Carbon sequestration is "The process of removing carbon from the atmosphere and depositing it in a reservoir." When carried out deliberately, this may also be referred to as carbon dioxide removal, which is a form of geoengineering. The term carbon sequestration may also be used to refer to the process of carbon capture and storage, where CO2 is removed from flue gases, such as on power stations, before being stored in underground reservoirs. The term may also refer to natural biogeochemical cycling of carbon between the atmosphere and reservoirs, such as by chemical weathering of rocks. Using seawater and calcium to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) in a natural gas power plant's flue stream, and then pumping the resulting calcium bicarbonate in the sea, could be beneficial to the oceans' marine life or states a new research report. The oceans contain around 36,000 gigatons of carbon, mostly in the form of bicarbonate ion (over 90%, with most of the remainder being carbonate). Carbon sequestration can be really beneficial into marine ecosystem.

Inorganic carbon, that is carbon compounds with no carbon-carbon or carbon-hydrogen bonds, is important in its reactions within water. This carbon exchange becomes important in controlling pH in the ocean and can also vary as a source or sink for carbon. Carbon is readily exchanged between the atmosphere and ocean. In regions of oceanic upwelling, carbon is released to the atmosphere. Conversely, regions of down welling transfer carbon (CO2) from the atmosphere to the ocean.

Greg Rau, a senior scientist with the Institute of Marine Sciences at the University of California Santa Cruz and who also works in the Carbon Management Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, conducted a series of lab-scale experiments to find out if a seawater/mineral carbonate (limestone) gas scrubber would remove enough CO2 to be effective, and whether the resulting substance -- dissolved calcium bicarbonate -- could then be stored in the ocean where it might also benefit marine life.

In addition to global warming effects, when carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere, a significant fraction is passively taken up by the ocean in a form that makes the ocean more acidic. This acidification has been shown to be harmful to marine life, especially corals and shellfish.

In his experiments, Rau found that the scrubber removed up to 97 percent of CO2 in a simulated flue gas stream, with a large fraction of the carbon ultimately converted to dissolved calcium bicarbonate.

"The experiment in effect mimics and speeds up nature's own process," said Rau. "Given enough time, carbonate mineral (limestone) weathering will naturally consume most anthropogenic CO2. Why not speed this up where it's cost effective to do so?"

If the carbon dioxide reacted with crushed limestone and seawater, and the resulting solution was released to the ocean, this would not only sequester carbon from the atmosphere, but also would add ocean alkalinity that would help buffer and offset the effects of ongoing marine acidification. Again, this speeds up the natural CO2 consumption and buffering process offered by carbonate weathering.

"This approach not only mitigates CO2, but also potentially treats the effects of ocean acidification," Rau said. "Further research at larger scales and in more realistic settings is needed to prove these dual benefits."

Rau said the process would be most applicable for CO2 mitigation at coastal, natural gas-fired power plants. Such plants frequently already use massive quantities of seawater for cooling, which could be cheaply reused for at least some of the CO2 mitigation process.

There are many potential techniques to control or reduce CO2 air emissions such as growing new forests, underground injection, and even a newly developed cement type that can absorb CO2 from ambient air during hardening.

Thursday, January 20, 2011

Global Warming


INTRODUCTION

Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of Earth's near-surface air and oceans. The gradual increase of the temperature of the earth's lower atmosphere is a result of the increase in greenhouse gases since the Industrial Revolution. The temperature of the atmosphere near the earth's surface is warmed through a natural process called the greenhouse effect.

Visible, shortwave light comes from the sun to the earth, passing unimpeded through a blanket of thermal, or greenhouse, gases composed largely of water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. Infrared radiation reflects off the planet's surface toward space but does not easily pass through the thermal blanket. Some of it is trapped and reflected downward, keeping the planet at an average temperature suitable to life, about 60°F (16°C).
How those greenhouse gasses causing global warming? Greenhouse gases are closed related with global warming. The global warming is actually caused by the greenhouse gasses. The greenhouses gases are gases in an atmosphere that absorb and emit radiation within the thermal infrared range.

Growth in industry, agriculture, and transportation since the Industrial Revolution has produced additional quantities of the natural greenhouse gases plus chlorofluorocarbons and other gases, augmenting the thermal blanket. It is generally accepted that this increase in the quantity of greenhouse gases is trapping more heat and increasing global temperatures, making a process that has been beneficial to life potentially disruptive and harmful.
During the past century, the atmospheric temperature has risen 1.1°F (0.6°C), and sea level has risen several inches. Some projected, longer-term results of global warming include melting of polar ice, with a resulting rise in sea level and coastal flooding; disruption of drinking water supplies dependent on snow melts; profound changes in agriculture due to climate change; extinction of species as ecological niches disappear; more frequent tropical storms; and an increased incidence of tropical diseases.
The effects of global warming and climate change are of concern both for the environment and human life. Evidence of observed climate change includes the instrumental temperature record, rising sea levels, and decreased snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere. According to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in [human greenhouse gas] concentrations.

It is predicted that future climate changes will include further global warming (i.e., an upward trend in global mean temperature), sea level rise, and a probable increase in the frequency of some extreme weather events. Ecosystems are seen as being particularly vulnerable to climate change. Human systems are seen as being variable in their capacity to adapt to future climate change. To reduce the risk of large changes in future climate, many countries have implemented policies designed to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases.
Physically, global warming can cause extremely change to the weather and climate. Increase on temperature can lead to increase on evaporation rate. Beside, the changing of temperature on certain area change it atmosphere pressure and this can lead to local atmospheric climate.

GLOBAL WARMING PROCESS

All objects emit radiation because of their temperature. This is called "black body" radiation. The Sun, or any object at a temperature of 6000 K, emits most of its energy in the visible spectrum. The Earth, or any object at 285 K, emits most of its energy in the infrared part of the spectrum. Some gases in the air are called "greenhouse gases". These are gases, like water vapor and carbon dioxide, that are transparent to visible light (from the Sun), but absorb infrared light (from the Earth).

When visible light from the Sun hits the earth, it zips through the atmosphere, hits the earth, and warms the earth. The earth emits some of this energy back out into space, keeping the planet cool. But the energy we emit is in the infrared, and some of that is absorbed by greenhouse gases in the air instead of going back out into space. When that happens, the air gets warmer - and the planet as a whole gets warmer too.

We humans used to burn wood for fuel. When we burned wood, the carbon dioxide we were releasing was the same carbon dioxide that the tree extracted from the air when it was growing; so the net effect was zero: as long was we planted a new tree to take the place of the old one, no "extra" carbon dioxide got into the air.

But since about 1750, when the steam engine was invented, we have been burning coal, oil, and other fossil fuels at faster and faster rates. This has released a lot of new carbon dioxide into the air, carbon that hasn't been in the atmosphere for millions of years. Right now, there is more carbon dioxide in the air than at any time in the last 20 million years or more. This has caused more and more of the earth's cooling radiation to be absorbed by the air, warming the planet.

Causes of Global Warming

Global warming is caused by several things, which include man-made or anthropogenic causes, and global warming is also caused by natural causes.

a) Natural Causes

Natural causes are causes that are created by nature. One natural cause is a release of methane gas. Methane is a greenhouse gas and a very dangerous gas to our environment. A greenhouse gas is a gas that traps heat in the earth's atmosphere. Methane is created when bacteria break down organic matter under oxygen-starved conditions. This occurs when organic matter is trapped underwater, as in rice paddies. It also takes place in the intestines of herbivorous animals, such as cows, sheep, and goats. Because human agriculture has grown over time to engulf most of the arable land on the planet, it is now adding a lot of methane to the atmosphere. Landfills and leakage from natural gas fields (methane is a component of natural gas) are also significant sources of methane. Another natural cause is that the earth goes through a cycle of climate change. This climate change usually lasts about 40,000 years. Even though nature contributes to global warming, this contribution is very insignificant when compared to human contribution for this hazard.

b) Man-made or Anthropogenic Causes of Global Warming

Man-made causes probably do the most damage to our planet. There are many man-made causes of global warming such as pollution, population, transportation, buying suburban home, deforestation, agriculture and so on. Pollution is one of the biggest man-made problems. Pollution comes in many shapes and sizes. Burning fossil fuels is one thing that causes pollution. Fossil fuels are fuels made of organic matter such as coal, or oil. When fossil fuels are burned they give off a green house gas called CO2. Also, mining coal and oil allows methane to escape. Methane is naturally in the ground. When coal or oil is mined you have to dig up the earth a little bit. When you dig up the fossil fuels you dig up the methane as well letting it escape into the atmosphere.

Another major man-made cause of Global Warming is population. More people mean more food, and more methods of transportation. That means more methane because there will be more burning of fossil fuels (if you're into gas burning cars like our planet is), and more agriculture. If you've been in a barn filled with animals and you smelled something terrible, you were smelling methane. Another source of methane is manure. Because more food is needed to feed the population we have to raise food. Animals like cows are a source of food which means more manure and hence more methane.

Another problem with the increasing population is transportation. More people mean more cars and more cars means more pollution. Also, many people have more than one car. Driving car requires combustion of tremendous amounts of fossil fuels. These fuels have been storing carbon for thousands, possibly millions of years. When your car burns them, that carbon is instantly released as carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. There are definitely ways of raising animals and farming that use no manure and no methane. Once we realized the problem we should have stopped immediately using manure. Instead we choose to continue killing the planet. We are a very stubborn race.

Since CO2 contributes to global warming, the increase in population makes the problem worse because we breathe out CO2. Also, the trees that convert our CO2 to oxygen are being cut down because we're using the land that we cut the trees down from as property for our homes and buildings. We are not replacing the trees (trees are a very important part of our eco-system), so we are constantly taking advantage of our natural resources and giving nothing back in return. The buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, mainly from your fossil fuel emissions, is the most significant human cause of global warming. Carbon dioxide is released every you burn something, be it a car, airplane or coal plant. This means you must burn less fossil fuel if you want the Earth's climate to remain stable! And unfortunately, we are currently destroying some of the best known mechanisms for storing that carbon plants.

Deforestation increases the severity of global warming as well. Carbon dioxide is released from the human conversion of forests and grasslands into farmland and cities. All living plants store carbon. When those plants die and decay, carbon dioxide is released back into the atmosphere. As forests and grasslands are cleared for your use, enormous amounts of stored carbon enter the atmosphere.

Buying your suburban home whose lot was cleared of existing trees and plants that were actively storing carbon. When those plants were killed to build your home, they stopped storing carbon and released all the carbon they had accumulated over tens or even hundreds of years.
The next causes of global warming that cause by man-made are agriculture. Nitrogen oxides have 300 times more heat-trapping capacity per unit of volume than carbon dioxide, and we release them every time we apply fertilizer to soil. A recent United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization study found that modern farming is contributing more too global warming than the entire transportation sector combined. This is due partly to the fuel burned in modern farming, but more significantly, to the release of methane and nitrogen oxides

CFCs and HCFCs (chlorofluorocarbons and hydro chlorofluorocarbons) used in refrigeration are also powerful greenhouse gases. These gases occur in lower concentrations in the atmosphere, but because they are so much more potent than carbon dioxide in some cases hundreds of times more potent per unit of volume they contribute to global warming as well.

Effects of Global Warming

1) Rise in Sea Level

Increase in temperatures effect sea levels in at least two ways. First, higher temperatures enhance the melting of ice sheets and glaciers, adding water to the oceans. Second, because liquid water density decreases with increasing temperature, higher temperature cause water to expand and sea levels to rise. Historical changes in global temperature have been correlated with changes in sea levels. When temperatures peaked up, during the mid-Cretaceous period, the Earth’s polar caps melted, sea levels rose to unprecedented levels, and 20 percent of continental land flooded. Today, snow and ice cover 3.3 percent of the Earth’s total surface area. The total ice volume is about 25 million km3. If this ice melts, the sea level will rise 65 m above its current level. During the twentieth century, the sea level rose by about 10 to 25 cm. By the year 2100, the sea level is expected to rise by another 10 to 90 cm (IPCC, 2001).

Although the melting of ice sheets, glaciers, and sea ice and the corresponding rise in sea level are of concern, a large increase in sea level is unlikely to occur during the next 500 years. The largest sources of sea level rise would be the melting of the East and West Antarctic Ice Sheets, the Greenland Ice Sheet, sea ice over the Arctic, the large valley and piedmont glaciers of southeast Alaska, and the glaciers of central Asia. The West Antarctic Ice Sheet, based over water, is an order of magnitude smaller than is the East Sheet, based over land. Thus, the West Sheet is less stable than is the East Sheet (Stuiver et al., 1981). If melted, the East and West Sheets would raise the sea level 55 to 60 m (Denton et al., 1971), with the West Sheet responsible for about 5 m of this rise (Mercer, 1987). If extreme global warming occurs, the West Sheet, as a result of its relative instability, is more likely to collapse than is the East Sheet. A collapse of the West Sheet would probably take about 500 years (Bentley, 1984). Currently, the East Sheet may be increasing in size because of an increased water vapor supply to the sheet resulting from higher global temperatures (Bentley, 1984). Extended global warming could reverse this trend and ultimately cause a collapse of the sheet, increasing sea levels by 50 to 55 m. Such a process, though, is likely to take thousand of years (Crowley and North, 1991).
The main effect of sea level rise, even in small quantities, is the flooding of low-lying coastal areas and the elimination of a few flat islands that lie just above sea level. Bangladesh, the most densely populated country in the world, is particularly at risk. A 1 m rise in sea level would displace about 17 million people from their homes. New Orleans, Lousiana, which already lies below sea level, would similarly face a danger of flooding. Tuvulu is a chain of nine coral atolls in the South Pacific Ocean, about halfway between Hawaii and Australia. Tuvulu has total land area of 26 km2, about 0.1 times the size of Washington DC, a coastline that stretches for 24 km and a population of about 10000. An increase in sea level of 2 m could eliminate the country.

2) Changes in Regional Climate and Agriculture

Global warming is likely to cause regional and temporal variations in temperature. The number of extremely hot days is likely to increase and the number of extremely cold days is likely to decrease. Droughts will increase in some areas and flood in others. Precipitation intensity, averaged over the globe, and the number of extreme rainfall events are expected to increase (IPCC, 1995). Changes in regional climates are likely to shift the location of viable agriculture. Crops may flourish in areas that were once too cold or dry, but they may also die in regions that become too hot or too wet. It is difficult to determine whether global warming will cause a net long-term increase or decrease in food supply, but it is fairly certain that locations crop viability will shift (Wuebbles, 1995). Because plants grow faster when temperatures, carbon dioxide levels, or water vapor levels mildly increase (plant-carbon dioxide negative feedback), it is expected that in areas where only mild changes in temperature and moisture occur, agriculture will flourish. In areas where extreme variations occur, agriculture will die out. Of particular concern are subtropical desert regions of Africa, where temperature are already hot. In these regions, agriculture is subject to the whims of the climate, and millions of people depend on the local food supply. Small change in climate could trigger famine, as has occurred in the past.
Low-latitude areas are at most risk of suffering decreased crop yields. Mid- and high-latitude areas could see increased yields for temperature increases of up to 1-3°C (relative to the period 1980-99). According to the IPCC report, above 3°C of warming, global agricultural production might decline, but this statement is made with low to medium confidence. Most of the agricultural studies assessed in the Report do not include changes in extreme weather events, changes in the spread of pests and diseases, or potential developments that may aid adaptation to climate change. An article in the New Scientist describes how rice crops might be strongly affected by rising temperatures. At a 2005 Conference held by the Royal Society, the benefits of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations were said to be outweighed by the negative impacts of climate change.

3) Change in Ecosystems

Rapid, continuous increase in temperature could lead to the extinction of many species that are accustomed to narrow climate conditions and are unable to migrate faster than the rate of climate change. Although enhanced CO2(g) levels invigorate forests, sharp increase in temperature could lead to forest dieback in tropical regions, affecting the rates of CO2(g) removal by photosynthesis and emission by respiration. Studying the association between Earth climate and extinctions over the past 520 million years, scientists from the University of York write, "The global temperatures predicted for the coming centuries may trigger a new ‘mass extinction event’, where over 50 per cent of animal and plant species would be wiped out." Marine invertebrates enjoy peak growth at the temperatures they have adapted to, regardless of how cold these may be, and cold-blooded animals found at greater latitudes and altitudes generally grow faster to compensate for the short growing season. Warmer-than-ideal conditions result in higher metabolism and consequent reductions in body size despite increased foraging, which in turn elevates the risk of predation. Indeed, even a slight increase in temperature during development impairs growth efficiency and survival rate in rainbow trout. A 2002 article in Nature surveyed the scientific literature to find recent changes in range or seasonal behavior by plant and animal species. Of species showing recent change, 4 out of 5 shifted their ranges towards the poles or higher altitudes, creating "refugee species". Frogs were breeding, flowers blossoming and birds migrating an average 2.3 days earlier each decade; butterflies, birds and plants moving towards the poles by 6.1 km per decade. A 2005 study concludes human activity is the cause of the temperature rise and resultant changing species behavior, and links these effects with the predictions of climate models to provide validation for them. Scientists have observed that Antarctic hair grass is colonizing areas of Antarctica where previously their survival range was limited.

4) Effect on Human Health

If global temperature increase, people living in locations where temperatures are already hot are likely to experience more stress and heat-related health problems than are people living in milder climates. People currently living in cold climates are likely to experience less stress. Heat-related health problems, such as heat rash and heat stroke, generally affect the elderly and those suffering from illness more than they affect the general population. Increases in precipitation as a result of global warming could increase the populations of mosquitoes and other insects that carry diseases. CO2(g), CH4(g), and N2O(g) cause no direct harmful health problems at ambient mixing ratios. Nevertheless, increases in the mixing ratios of these gases will affect human health indirectly through the effects of these gases on climate change and the effect of the resulting climate change on health. Particulate BC, another agent of global warming, will affect human health directly. BC is emitted primarily in submicron particles. Epidemiological studies have shown that long-term exposure to particles ≤2.5 ┬Ám in diameter above background levels causes increased mortality, increased disease, and decreased lung function in adults and children (Ozkatnak and Thurston, 1987; U.S EPA, 1996; Pope and Dockery, 1999).
The negative health impacts of climate change will outweigh the benefits, especially in developing countries. Some examples of negative health impacts include increased malnutrition, increased deaths, disease and injury due to heat waves, floods, storms, fires and droughts, and increased frequency of cardio-respiratory diseases. According to a 2009 study by UCL academics, climate change and global warming pose the biggest threat to human health in the 21st century.

5) Effects on Stratospheric Ozone

Global warming has caused a warming of near-surface air and it has caused a cooling of the stratosphere. Cooling of the stratosphere is affecting the ozone layer in at least three ways. First, cooling affects the rates of chemical reaction that produce and destroy ozone. Whereas many reactions proceed more slowly when temperatures decrease, the reaction O(g)+O2(g)+M O3(g)+M proceeds more rapidly when temperatures decrease. Thus, when gas chemistry alone is considered, a cooling of the stratosphere slightly increase global stratospheric ozone.
Second, cooling decrease the saturation vapor pressure (SVP) of water, allowing sulfuric acid-water aerosol particles in the background stratosphere to grow larger. The increase in size of these aerosol particles will increases the rates at which heterogeneous reaction occur on their surfaces. Because such reaction produce chlorine gases that photolyze to products that destroy ozone, a decrease in stratosphere temperatures reduces global stratospheric ozone when only this effect is considered. Third, a cooling of the stratosphere increases the occurrence, size, and lifetime of Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs). Type I PSCs form at below 195 K and Type II PSCs form at below 187 K. Stratospheric cooling decreases temperatures below these critical levels during winter more frequently and for a longer period than when no cooling occurs, increasing Type I and II PSC lifetime, and size, enhancing Antarctic and Arctic ozone destruction during Southern and Northern Hemisphere springtime, respectively. In sum, stratospheric cooling from near-surface global warming has opposing effects on ozone in the global stratosphere, but it causes a net destruction of ozone over the Antarctic and Arctic.

What We Can Do to Overcome The Global Warming

There are several methods to overcome the global warming. Firstly, we must learn to drive smartly. A well-tuned car with properly inflated tires burns less gasoline, so this cuts pollution and saving us money at the pump. Better yet, skip the drive and take public transit, walk or even cycle if it’s a short journey.

Secondly, we can save the earth at our own backyard by planting trees. Protecting forests is a huge step on the road to curbing global warming. Planting shade trees around our home will not make our landscape much better but it will also help us to absorb carbon dioxide.
Thirdly, we should learn the ‘3R’ methods which is Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. Paper, glass and metal products made from recycled materials saves 70% to 90% of energy and pollution. Recycling a stack of newspapers only four feet high will save a good size tree. Then, we must also do not leave electrical appliances on standby mode. Normally, teenagers like us love to watch television overnight. So once we sleepy we will just press the ‘on or off’ button on the remote control to switch off the television. Actually, a television set that’s switched on for three hours a day and in standby mode for the remaining 21 hours uses about 40% of its energy in standby mode.

Lastly, we must cover the pot when cooking. It is because doing so can save a lot of energy needed for the preparation of a dish. Even pressure cookers and steamers, they can save energy about 70%.

CONCLUSION

After we read about all the things about the global warming, we understand how we affect planet`s health. We know that global warming is majorly cause by greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases are gases in the atmosphere that absorb and emit radiation within the thermal infrared range such as chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and many more.The process of the global warming is simple. When visible light from the Sun hits the earth, it passes through the atmosphere, hits the earth, and warms the earth. The earth emits some of this energy back out into space, keeping the planet cool. But the energy we emit is in the infrared, and some of that is absorbed by greenhouse gases in the air instead of going back out into space. When that happens, the air gets warmer - and the planet as a whole gets warmer too.

There are so many causes that can cause global warming. We can divide these causes into two major branches. Natural and Anthropogenic (Man-Made) .The example of natural cause is the release of methane gas that is dangerous to our environment and it is released when bacteria break down organic matter under oxygen-starved conditions usually happen at landfills. The most popular causes that contribute to global warming are man-made causes such as pollution, population, transportation waste, deforestation and many more. All of these causes mostly give off a green house gas called CO2 which is harmful to human being if it is in excess amount.

The effect of global warming upon us is very obvious. One of the effects is the rise in sea level. It is cause by the melting of ice sheets and glaciers, adding water to the oceans. Next are changes in regional climate and agriculture. The number of extremely hot days is likely to increase and the number of extremely cold days is likely to decrease. Droughts will increase in some areas and flood in others. The next effect is change in ecosystems. Rapid, continuous increase in temperature could lead to the extinction of many species and will change the entire ecosystem and maybe this could lead to human extinction too. Human health will be affected by global warming too. If global temperature increase, people living in locations where temperatures are already hot are likely to experience more stress and heat-related health problems than are people living in milder climates. The last effect of global warming we can discuss here is effect on stratospheric ozone layer. Global warming has caused a warming of near-surface air and it has caused a cooling of the stratosphere. The cooling of stratosphere layer will increasing the rates of chemical reaction that produce and destroys ozone layer. There are laws to prevent the global warming from becoming worst from time to time. First is Kyoto Protocol which is their main issue is to fight global warming. The goal of this protocol is to achieve "stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would minimize dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system”. The second law is The Montreal Protocol. It is a landmark of international agreement designed to protect the stratospheric ozone layer. Montreal Protocol stipulates that the production and consumption of compounds that deplete ozone in the stratosphere--chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform--are to be phased out by 2000 (2005 for methyl chloroform).

Global warming has become global issue. Everything we work in , we work for seem to have impact on the global warming. It has become a cycle of issue and the outcome of this simple cycle is the releasing of greenhouse gases that lead to global warming. It started with the climate change that will create ocean transport carbon. However ocean cannot sustain exceeded amount of carbon so the ocean become acidic. When the evaporation happen on the surface of the ocean, acidic ocean release back carbon dioxide which is one of the greenhouse gases and will contribute to global warming. Global warming has become a very popular topic among scientist to discuss about. Everyone is racing with each other against time to find the most effective way on how to reduce the global warming effect on the earth. Everyone think the earth will finish if no instant action is taken to slow down global warming and bring it back to the normal tempo. Every second passed is very valuable to us to find the way to slow down global warming and we should pray together that all our effort all this while can save the earth from other destruction cause by global warming.


Carbon Trading: Should Carbon Sequestration In The Terrestrial Biosphere Be Credited?


Introduction

Carbon trading is one of the mechanisms of Kyoto Protocol in order to reduce the emission of carbon and concentration of carbon concentration in the atmosphere. Under the program of carbon trading, there is another program which is carbon sequestration. Carbon sequestration can be divided into two, which is geographic sequestration and terrestrial sequestration. Terrestrial carbon sequestration is the process of terrestrial carbon sequestration is the net removal of CO2 from the atmosphere by plants and microorganisms in the soil and the prevention of CO2 net emissions from terrestrial ecosystems into the atmosphere. This program area is focused on integrating measures for improving the full life-cycle carbon uptake of terrestrial ecosystems, including farmland and forests, with fossil fuel production and use. The following ecosystems offer significant opportunity for carbon sequestration:
  • Forest lands. The focus includes below-ground carbon and long-term management and utilization of standing stocks, understory, ground cover, and litter.
  • Agricultural lands. The focus includes crop lands, grasslands, and range lands, with emphasis on increasing long-lived soil carbon.
  • Biomass croplands. As a complement to ongoing efforts related to biofuels, the focus is on long-term increases in soil carbon and value-added organic products.
  • Deserts and degraded lands. Restoration of degraded lands offers significant benefits and carbon sequestration potential in both below-and above-ground systems.
  • Boreal wetlands and peat lands. The focus includes management of soil carbon pools and perhaps limited conversion to forest or grassland vegetation where ecologically acceptable.
About Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005. The detailed rules for the implementation of the Protocol were adopted at COP 7 in Marrakesh in 2001, and are called the “Marrakesh Accords.”
The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas emissions .These amount to an average of five per cent against 1990 levels over the five-year period 2008-2012.

The major distinction between the Protocol and the Convention is that while the Convention encouraged industrialized countries to stabilize GHG emissions, the Protocol commits them to do so.
Recognizing that developed countries are principally responsible for the current high levels of GHG emissions in the atmosphere as a result of more than 150 years of industrial activity, the Protocol places a heavier burden on developed nations under the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities.”

The Kyoto Mechanisms
Under the Treaty, countries must meet their targets primarily through national measures. However, the Kyoto Protocol offers them an additional means of meeting their targets by way of three market-based mechanisms.
The Kyoto mechanisms are:

• Emissions trading – known as “the carbon market"
• Clean development mechanism (CDM)
• Joint implementation (JI).

The mechanisms help stimulate green investment and help Parties meet their emission targets in a cost-effective way.


Emissions Trading
Greenhouse gas emissions
Emissions trading, as set out in Article 17 of the Kyoto Protocol, allows countries that have emission units to spare - emissions permitted them but not "used" - to sell this excess capacity to countries that are over their targets.
Thus, a new commodity was created in the form of emission reductions or removals. Since carbon dioxide is the principal greenhouse gas, people speak simply of trading in carbon. Carbon is now tracked and traded like any other commodity. This is known as the "carbon market". More than actual emissions units can be traded and sold under the Kyoto Protocol’s emissions trading scheme. The other units which may be transferred under the scheme, each equal to one tonne of CO2, may be in the form of:

  • A removal unit (RMU) on the basis of Land use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF); activities such as reforestation.
  • An emission reduction unit (ERU) generated by a joint implementation project.
  • A certified emission reduction (CER) generated from a clean development mechanism project activity.

Transfers and acquisitions of these units are tracked and recorded through the registry systems under the Kyoto Protocol.
An international transaction log ensures secure transfer of emission reduction units between countries.
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), defined in Article 12 of the Protocol, allows a country with an emission-reduction or emission-limitation commitment under the Kyoto Protocol (Annex B Party) to implement an emission-reduction project in developing countries.
Such projects can earn saleable certified emission reduction (CER) credits, each equivalent to one tonne of CO2, which can be counted towards meeting Kyoto targets. The mechanism is seen by many as a trailblazer. It is the first global, environmental investment and credit scheme of its kind, providing a standardized emission offset instrument, CERs.
A CDM project activity might involve, for example, a rural electrification project using solar panels or the installation of more energy-efficient boilers. The mechanism stimulates sustainable development and emission reductions, while giving industrialized countries some flexibility in how they meet their emission reduction or limitation targets.

CARBON TRADING

Carbon trading refers to a system to control the emission of carbon dioxide whereby governments or international bodies set an overall limit on the amount of carbon that can be emitted. Allowances are then granted (or auctioned) to large emitters of carbon, such as electric utilities, paper mills, and chemical plants, which are then freely tradable. Companies who will be emitting more carbon than they have permits to emit must therefore buy additional credits on the open market, while those who will emit less can sell their credits.

This system is attractive to governments for several reasons. First, it easily enables sliding reductions in carbon emissions over a number of years. Every year, the number of credits granted can just be decreased by the government. Second, it creates a flexible and efficient market for carbon reduction, encouraging reduction of carbon emissions by those companies who can do so at the least cost. After all, a company for whom reducing carbon emissions is expensive will buy excess credits from a company that can reduce carbon emissions cheaply. On the hand, in the words of economist Jeffrey Sachs, carbon trading is "hard to implement, it's hard to monitor, it's non-transparent, it's highly political, highly manipulative, which is why the banks love it, the banks all want to trade, this is an investment banking dream."

Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Carbon sequestration is the placement of CO2 into a repository in such a way that it will remain permanently sequestered. Efforts are focused on two categories of repositories: geologic formations and terrestrial ecosystems. Carbon sequestration can be divided into two categories:-

  1. Terrestrial sequestration.
  2. Geoengineering sequestration.

Terrestrial sequestration is the placement of CO2 into a repository in such a way that it will remain permanently sequestered. Efforts are focused on two categories of repositories: geologic formations and terrestrial ecosystems. Terrestrial carbon sequestration is the net removal of CO2 from the atmosphere by plants and microorganisms in the soil and the prevention of CO2 net emissions from terrestrial ecosystems into the atmosphere.

There is significant opportunity to use terrestrial sequestration both to reduce CO2 emissions and to secure additional benefits, such as habitat and water quality improvements that often result from such projects. In principle, terrestrial sequestration is the enhancement of the CO2 uptake by plants that grow on land and in freshwater and, importantly, the enhancement of carbon storage in soils where it may remain more permanently stored.

Terrestrial sequestration provides an opportunity for low-cost CO2 emissions offsets. Early efforts include tree plantings, no-till farming, and forest preservation. More-advanced research includes the development of fast-growing trees and grasses and deciphering the genomes of carbon-storing soil microbes.
Soil carbon is both organic and inorganic carbon contained in soil. During photosynthesis, plants convert CO2 into organic carbon, which then is deposited in the soil through their roots and as plant residue. Organic carbon is found in the top layer of soil, the A horizon. Inorganic soil carbon comprises carbonates that form through non-biological interactions. They are a minor amount compared with organic carbon, but are considered more permanent. Large plant roots, such as those of trees, are considered biomass and not part of the soil, but the organic matter, includes many fine root hairs, where much of the CO2 "exchange" from the plant to the soil occurs.

Terrestrial carbon sequestration is not only of interest in those countries which have an obligation to reduce greenhouse gas emission under the Kyoto Protocol. Contemporary rational for its policy making includes that it;
  1. Offers cost effective solutions for limiting Greenhouse Gases concentration in the atmosphere for countries while enhancing their natural capital;
  2. Enhances cooperation for knowledge and technology transfer amongst states;
  3. Provides opportunities in developing countries; and
  4. Has potential for rural poverty reduction.

Methods of Terrestrial Carbon Trading


Forested land and agricultural land are the land types most commonly associated with carbon sequestration. Within forested lands, the primary methods for promoting carbon sequestration are:

  • Afforestation is the conversion of previously non-forested land into forested land. This method is more commonly associated with the conversion of poor to marginal cropland into forested land. Afforestation can result in a large amount of carbon sequestered over a long period of time.
  • Reforestation Reforestation is the restoration of previously forested land.
  • Sustainable forest management techniques include forest preservation, adoption of low-impact harvesting methods, lengthening of forest rotation cycles, agroforestry, and the adoption of other methods aimed at increasing carbon uptake. Forest preservation is the protection of current forestland from conversion into other land types. Doing so prevents the release of carbon from current carbon stocks. Low-impact harvesting methods suggest the use of selective cutting to avoid unnecessary removal of biomass from forestlands. By increasing the rotation period between harvesting timber, a larger amount of wood is permitted to grow and greater carbon uptake is seen. Agroforestry is essentially the combination of forestry and agriculture, whereby trees are grown alongside traditional crops. Other forest management methods that can increase the sequestration rates of carbon included the thinning of forests, and the planting of tree species that produce a larger carbon uptake (Richards et al. 2005).
Methods for increasing carbon sequestration on agricultural land are:
  • Soil erosion management
Soil erosion management employs vegetative buffers, and residue management to reduce erosion on highly erodible land. Vegetative buffers, or riparian buffers, are plants and trees that are planted on the borders of agricultural land, or along the bank of streams and waterways. These plants reduce the impact of wind and water, which thereby reduces the amount of soil erosion, and consequently the water quality of adjoining waterways. Residue management is essentially the introduction of manure or animal by-products into the soil. Doing so reduces the tendency of soil to be eroded, and increases the tendency for soil to uptake carbon.
  • Conservation tillage
Tilling has many purposes, but it is primarily employed to prevent soil compaction and remove unwanted vegetation. In removing unwanted vegetation, tilling reduces the carbon content of the top layer of the soil, and prevents the long-term storage of carbon deeper in the soil. Conservation tillage employs a variety of techniques to reduce the amount of tillage required to maintain productive cropland. Soil that undergoes conservation tillage as opposed to traditional tillage can contain 30–50% more carbon. Implementation of conservation tillage is often combined with the use of crop rotation.

  • Crop rotation
Crop Rotation is the alternation between summer and winter crops on the same plot of land. A common example of this is the rotation between wheat and peas. Maintaining a crop cover during the winter reduces soil compaction (decreasing the need for tillage), decreases the occurrence of erosion, and increases the organic content of the soil. Within the United States, 50 million hectares of cropland are suitable for crop rotation practices.
  • Grazing land management
To maximize the carbon uptake of grazing land livestock is rotated in a more efficient and scheduled manner. The absence of livestock from grazing land for longer periods of time increases the presence of biomass and increases the soil uptake of carbon.
  • Wetland restoration
Wetlands are frequently drained to produce dry, fertile soil for agricultural use. Wetland soil contains a very concentrated amount of carbon; 14.5% of the world’s soil carbon is found in wetlands, while only 6% of the world’s land is composed of wetlands (FAO, 1999). The need to protect wetlands is particularly relevant in the United States, where over half of the nations wetlands have been drained (FAO, 1999). Wetland restoration calls for agricultural producers to protest and/or restore the wetlands found on their property.
  • Biofuel substitution
Biofuel Substitution is the use of agricultural land for the production of biomass that can be converted to biofuel. This fuel can be used onsite to offset the energy used for agricultural production or the biofuel can be transported offsite for large-scale energy production.

Advantages of Carbon Sequestration

As a result of increased concern over global warming because of greater carbon emissions in the air, governments and other organizations have been searching for effective solutions to the issue of pollution. Among many other strategies for dealing with this issue, carbon trading and carbon offset have been highly successful. Carbon trading involves organizations buying carbon credits from the market. The credits restrict the level of greenhouse gases that companies can discharge in to the air without being penalized for it.

Nature reduces the carbon in the atmosphere by absorption of plant by photosynthesis process to produce stanch. Carbon sequestration introduces affrorestration and reforestation to reduce the concentration of carbon in the atmosphere in nature way. Afforestration is the process of turning the abandon land into forest and reforestation is the process of replants the destroyed forest. Afforestration and reforestation restore the lost forest due to urbanization and development. Unused vegetation land such as abandon crops will be turned into forest to reduce the greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. This could reduce the concentration of carbon into the atmosphere and at the same time giving side benefit of restoring degraded ecosystems worldwide. Restoring wetlands to sequester larger quantities of carbon in sediment will also preserve wildlife and protect estuaries. This could minimize the destruction of endangered species and restore their habitat. The process of restoring wetland is said to be great opportunity to cultivate endangered species (IUNC, 2008).

Soils in which high levels of carbon are present as soil organic matter exhibit improved nutrient absorption, water retention, texture, and resistance to erosion, making them particularly useful for both plant productivity and sequestration. Storage of carbon in below ground systems is the best long-term option for carbon storage in terrestrial systems because most soil organic matter has a longer residence time than most plant biomass. Soil organic matter is a complex mixture of compounds with different residence times. The more stable compounds are the most important for carbon sequestration because they have turnover times of hundreds to thousands of years. This could create conditions for higher plant productivity and accumulation of soil carbon to increase carbon sequestration since the process actually neutralizes the soil. So, the process could increase the crops production if carbon sequestration done in crops area.

Carbon emitted by the human activities is captured and then sequestrated into the soil into the selected area. High levels of soil organic matter exhibit capable of prevent soil erosion. Prevention of erosion can be a major contributor to carbon sequestration. By increasing the vegetation of land, the soil will be more stable since the vegetation capable of holding the soil together. The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO 1992) estimates that 25 billion tons of soils are lost through erosion each year.

Increases in soil carbon sequestration alone can provide significant benefits by delaying the need for more technically complex solutions. FAO, 2010 estimated that, for agricultural soil carbon only, 35 years of time might be “bought” (potentially saving at least $100 million) before major adjustments in the world’s energy production system would be required to meet a goal of 550 ppmv atmospheric CO2. As a result, over the next quarter century, other carbon management options could be evaluated and implemented.

Disadvantages of Carbon Sequestration

Carbon sequestration created to reduce the carbon emission into the atmosphere, carbon sequestration need high technologies to sequestration into layer of soil and to monitor the process. Those complicated technologies require many expert and money. It is something high profit Nation could involve. But since it is under carbon trading, company from annex country could pay non-annex nation with those technologies to pay the non–annex exchange to carbon emission certification (CER). Since the existence of solution for global warming, this gives the companies reasons to pollute more.

Carbon emission reduction methods in agriculture can be grouped into two categories: reducing and/or displacing emissions and enhancing carbon removal. Some of these reductions involve increasing the efficiency of farm operations (i.e. more fuel-efficient equipment) while some involve interruptions in the natural carbon cycle. Also, some effective techniques (such as the elimination of stubble burning) can negatively impact other environmental concerns (increased herbicide use to control weeds not destroyed by burning).

Replacing more energy intensive farming operations can also reduce emissions. Reduced or no-till farming requires less machine use and burns correspondingly less fuel per acre. However, no-till usually increases use of weed-control chemicals and the residue now left on the soil surface is more likely to release its CO2 to the atmosphere as it decays, reducing the net carbon reduction.

Ocean iron fertilization is an example of such a geoengineering technique of carbon sequestration. Iron fertilization attempts to encourage phytoplankton growth, which removes carbon from the atmosphere for at least a period of time. This technique is controversial due to limited understanding its complete effects on the marine ecosystem, including side effects and possibly large deviations from expected behavior. Such effects potentially include release of nitrogen oxides, and disruption of the ocean's nutrient balance.

Encouraging various ocean layers to mix can move nutrients and dissolved gases around, offering avenues for carbon sequestration. Mixing may be achieved by placing large vertical pipes in the oceans to pump nutrient rich water to the surface, triggering blooms of algae, which store carbon when they die. This produces results somewhat similar to iron fertilization. One side-effect is a short-term rise in CO2, which limits its attractiveness.


Study Case

According to Greenpeace, Indonesia have the fastest rate of the deforestation in the world between the years 2000-2005. This rampant destruction-both legal and illegal-is fueled by the worldwide demand for palm oil, paper and tropical wood. Deforestation of Indonesia’s rainforest and peat lands contributes to rising greenhouse gases in multiple ways, including eliminating carbon sinks, releasing carbon dioxide trapped in peat and from slash and burn methods of agriculture.
Indonesia is the world’s third largest greenhouse gas emitter, trailing only China and United States, which unlike Indonesia are industrial superpowers. Indonesia’s emissions are almost entirely from its agricultural and forestry sector, which generate a small proportion of the country’s total economic activity (a 2007 estimated the benefit to Indonesia of the sector a $0.34 cents per ton carbon dioxide, or a fraction of the value seen in Europe’s carbon market). Furthermore, forests provide food, water, and livelihoods for tens of millions of Indonesians. Destruction of the forests put these resources and opportunities at risk, but payment for forest conservation could help ensure sustainable use and provide economic incentives for shifting plantation development to the millions of hectares of abandoned and degraded non-forest land that lie across the Indonesia archipelago.

Now, help maybe arriving in the shape of carbon trading program that would effectively pay Indonesia and other forest-rich countries not to chop down their trees. Carbon trading is the part of the Kyoto Protocol allowing developing countries, including Indonesia to reduce emissions. Behind the initiative is the potential monetary value – as yet unrealized – of tropical forest as vast stocks of carbon that the industrialized world can offset against greenhouse gases emission. Indonesian Sumur Batu’s forest will be first trial of terrestrial carbon sequestration program to undergo experiment on the country. Any further result will be informed to PBB.
World Bank and PT Gikoko Kogyo Indonesia have signed an agreement to develop an eco-friendly project that will trap climate pollutants released from the Sumur Batu sanitary landfill in Bekasi. Under the agreement, the World Bank, acting as trustee of the Netherland’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Facility, will purchase 250,000 tons of carbon dioxide per year for 15 years. Then, Indonesia has received certified emission reduction (CER) credits issued by the United Nations executive board. The credits are traded in 38 developed nations that have the obligation to cut emissions between 2008 and 2012 by 5.2 percent below their 1990 levels. One CER credits is equal to one ton of carbon dioxide priced between $5 and $10.

Conclusions

Carbon sequestration is of the program from the carbon trading mechanism that involves the participation of all Nations around the world. Even though US are not joining the Kyoto Protocol, US also participate on carbon sequestration program. Carbon sequestration by terrestrial ecosystems is the net removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere or the avoidance of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from terrestrial ecosystems into the atmosphere. The removal process includes CO2 uptake from the atmosphere by all chlorophyllous plants, through photosynthesis. This C is stored as plant biomass (in the trunks, branches, leaves and roots of the plants) and organic matter in the soil. The terrestrial carbon sequestrations depend on land use practices and different ecosystem conditions that sustain established vegetation over longer periods. This program still in under observation, but however the response from Asian countries encouraging. The program is expected to be developed more on Asian’s forests since it have spacious untouched forest.
Afforestation and reforestation could reduce the concentration of carbon in the atmosphere and at the same time provide new habitat to the endangered species. Since carbons are sequestrated into the soil, this could neutralize the soil and provide nourishment into the plant and crops. Beside, the encouragements of vegetative growth also evade the soil erosion.

Even though this program is aimed to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, but however its ability still be question. The program is said will cause destruction of nature ecosystem and habitat. The geologic sequestration is said will change the soil profile and disturb the hydrology circle and than easily polluted the groundwater. Beside, the terrestrial carbon sequestration also is said capable of polluted the nearest surface water with nutrient. Further effect is algae bloom and invasion species. Other effect of the terrestrial carbon sequestration is still in research.

Carbon sequestration is under monitoring and further research is still under construction. However, the program is believed to have the pros and cons. Since terrestrial carbon sequestration is still under observation, it is too early to determine either it should be credited or not. Any further research should be conducted to gain more knowledge about this program.

References

1. http://www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/sequestration/terrestrial/
2. http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/carbon_seq/FAQs/carbon-seq.html
3. http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/mechanisms/clean_development_mechanism/items/2718.php
4. http://www.enn.com/business/article/41512
5. http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2006/sbsta/eng/l10.pdf
6. http://csite.esd.ornl.gov/